A system is a cluster of different physical components in a configuration such that they act in unison to achieve a certain objective. A control system is a system which controls the output to reach the desired response.

Components of a system

  1. Plant: The part of the system which is to be regulated is called as plant. A plant may be a piece of equipment or a set of machine parts. The purpose of plant is to perform a specific operation. eg. Heating Furnace, Nuclear Reactor, etc.

  2. Process: The operation that is to be controlled is known as process. For eg. any biological/chemical process.

  3. Controller: Any element that controls the plant or the process is called controller. A controller can be an internal element as well as an external component. For eg. an electrical switch.

Basic Parameters

  • Input: The signal applied to the control system (usually from an external source) to get the desired output is known as the input.

  • Output: It is the actual response that we get when an input signal is applied to a control system.

  • Disturbance: It is the signal(noise) that causes disturbance to the system and can disrupt the desired output response. It can be internal or external (usually due to the enviroment).

Block Diagram