Types of Integrated Circuits

  • An electronic circuit or device with electronic components on a tiny semiconductor chip is known as an integrated circuit. It has logic AND or signal amplification capabilities. Digital and analogue circuits are the two most common forms. Analog ICs deal with continuous signals like audio, while digital ICs deal with discrete signals like binary values.
  • There are different types of integrated circuits grounded colorful criteria. Grounded on intended operation, the Integrated Circuit (IC) can be classified as following

    1. Discrete signals, such as binary values, are handled by digital integrated circuits (0 and 1). Digital logic gates, multiplexers, flip flops, and other components are used in these circuits. These circuits are simpler to develop and less expensive.

    2. Contiguous signals are handled by analogue integrated circuits. Linear integrated circuits (Linear ICs) and radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) are the two varieties (RF ICs).

    3. Analog and digital integrated circuits are combined to create Mixed Integrated Circuits. As a result, it has digital to analogue (A/D), digital to analogue (D/A), and clock/timing integrated circuits.

  • General types of integrated circuits are as following: Comparators, Switching IC, Audio amplifiers, Operational amplifiers, Timers ICs.

Digital Integrated Circuit:

  • Digital integrated circuit functions that handle discrete signals like binary values using "true/false" logical processes. Basic Boolean operations like AND, OR, and NOT are critical in the development of modern digital systems' functionality. Transistors are used to implement these Boolean functions. The internal transistor structure of a NAND gate, for example, is shown in the diagram below.  

  • In a modern digital circuit, there could be ten billion or more transistors. To provide certain functionality, we require Integrated Circuits (ICs) that integrate a small or large number of these transistors. These circuits serve students by providing a low cost and a high level of reliability. MOS, CMOS, TTL, and other integrated circuits are examples. The use of anti-static foam for storing and transport of CMOS ICs reduces the chance of chip failure. TTL technology requires a 5 volt regulated power source.

Digital Integrated Circuit

Families of Integrated Circuits:

  • A group of electronic logic gates is called a logic family. A discrete logic level, power supply, individual components, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages are all unique to each family. 

  • There is a voltage range within each family that can be low or high.

  • These families are listed as following below:

  1. Diode Logic (DL):
  • Logic is implemented via registers and diodes. The function of a diode is to conduct OR and AND operations as well as act as a logic switch. It is critical that the diode is forward biassed in order to conduct. Disadvantages include the inability to conduct NOT operations, the inability to function for several states at once, and the tendency for signals to decay quickly.
  1. Register Transistor Logic (RTL):

    • ​​​​​​​Logic is implemented using registers and transistors. Transistors are used to combine inverted and amplified input signals. These are cost-effective and simple to design, but they are sluggish. This necessitates a large quantity of current from the source. RTL gates can be used to connect linear and digital circuits.

  2. Diode Transistor Logic (DTL):

    • ​​​​​​​Logic is implemented via registers and diodes. It has benefits over both DL and RTL. Along with a transistor, a diode can execute AND and OR operations, and the output signal can be amplified. It has logic inversion, which means that if a transistor is added to the output of the logic gates, the signal can be restored to its full logic level. Instead of resistors, diodes can be used to execute the OR function, which eliminates signal interaction. The transistor's switching speed is limited due to the input resistance. Tube computers made use of DTL.

  3. Transistor - Transistor Logic (TTL):

    • ​​​​​​​Transistors are used to implement logic and Bipolar transistors to contract integrated circuits. There are standard TTL, high speed TTL, low power TTL, and schottky TTL. It is popular logic family.

  4. Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL):
  • ECL is anon-structured sense. Advantages of this sense are speed, and veritably low propagation detention.

  • Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Logic (CMOS).

  • ​​​​​​​It is known for high fan-out, low power consumption and most reliable logic family.​​​​​​​