Symmetrical (3Φ) Fault

Unsymmetrical Fault

3Φ short circuit with the ground

3Φ short circuit without the ground

1Φ (line) to ground short circuit

2Φ (line) to ground short circuit

Phase (line)  to phase (line) short circuit

1Φ (line) open circuit

2Φ (line) open circuit

Winding fault

Cause due to failure or breaking of insulation or falling to the ground

Cause due to break in conducting path or joints

Cause due to failure of winding

Effect is short circuit unbalanced current flow damage the equipment

Effect is unbalanced current flow, heats up rotating machines

Effect is short circuit of windings