Types of Hypothesis

Types of Hypothesis

There are six forms of hypothesis and they are:

  • Simple hypothesis

  • Complex hypothesis

  • Directional hypothesis

  • Non-directional hypothesis

  • Null hypothesis

  • Associative and casual hypothesis

Simple Hypothesis
It shows a relationship between one dependent variable and a single independent variable. For example – If you eat more vegetables, you will lose weight faster. Here, eating more vegetables is an independent variable, while losing weight is the dependent variable.

Complex Hypothesi s
It shows the relationship between two or more dependent variables and two or more independent variables. Eating more vegetables and fruits leads to weight loss, glowing skin, reduces the risk of many diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure and some cancers.

Directional Hypothesis
It shows how a researcher is intellectual and committed to a particular outcome. The relationship between the variables can also predict its nature. For example- children aged four years eating proper food over a five-year period are having higher IQ levels than children not having a proper meal. This shows the effect and direction of effect.

Non-directional Hypothesis
It is used when there is no theory involved. It is a statement that a relationship exists between two variables, without predicting the exact nature (direction) of the relationship.

Null Hypothesis
It provides the statement which is contrary to the hypothesis. It’s a negative statement, and there is no relationship between independent and dependent variables. The symbol is denoted by “HO”.

Associative and Causal Hypothesis
Associative hypothesis occurs when there is a change in one variable resulting in a change in the other variable. Whereas, causal hypothesis proposes a cause and effect interaction between two or more variables.

Examples of Hypothesis

Following are the examples of hypothesis based on their types:

Consumption of sugary drinks every day leads to obesity is an example of a simple hypothesis. All lilies have the same number of petals is an example of a null hypothesis. If a person gets 7 hours of sleep, then he will feel less fatigue than if he sleeps less.

Functions of Hypothesis:

Following are the functions performed by the hypothesis:

  • Hypothesis helps in making an observation and experiments possible.

  • It becomes the start point for the investigation.

  • Hypothesis helps in verifying the observations.

  • It helps in directing the inquiries in the right directions.