A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence
In the period of classical and other human civilizations before the middle ages, the philosophers started mulling over the idea that artificial beings, mechanical men, can exist. Early thinkers were very intelligent to make the topic of artificial intelligence more acceptable throughout the 1700s and beyond. Philosophers started thinking that how human thinking could be artificially mechanized.
Alan Turing mathematician, in 1936, a British scientist, came to the folks with the concept of a universal machine, later known as the Turing machine.
In a seminal paper "Computing Machinery and Intelligence” written by Alan Turing on the topic of artificial intelligence. In the paper, published in 1950 in Mind, it was the first to introduce his concept of the Turing test to the general public. Requirement of a machine came into a picture where machines are capable of computing anything that is computable and the answer to this was the Turing Machine. Now the central concept of the modern computer is mainly based on the concept of Turing machine. In 1956 AI concept was disclosed to the students at Dartmouth College.The major concept which was discussed was quoted in the following lines
“The study is to proceed on the basis of the conjecture that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it.” - John McCarthy Dartmouth Conference (1965)
As all the Cognitive scientists like Marvin Minsky was optimistic about the technology's future. During 1974-1980 there was a drop in the funding and there was lots of criticism. In the mid-1980s at least four totally different research groups started again working on the back propagation learning algorithm first found in 1969.
However, the taste of artificial intelligence was revived afterwards in the 1980s when the British government started funding the technology again, especially because they were worried about a technological war with Japan. In 1997, history was made when IBM's Deep Blue became the first computer to beat a Russian Grandmaster.