Wind Breakers 

Wind Breakers 

  • Wind is one of the most important factors which affect rate of evaporation loss from water surface. The greater the movement of air over the water surface, greater is the evaporation loss. Planting of trees normal to windward direction is found to be an effective measure for checking of evaporation loss. Plants (trees, shrubs or grass) should be grown around the rim of tanks in a row or rows to act as wind breaker.

  • These wind breakers are found to influence the temperature, atmospheric humidity, soil moisture, evaporation and transpiration of the area protected.

  • Plants to act as wind breakers are usually arranged in rows, with tallest plants in the middle and the smallest along the end rows, so that more or less conical formation is formed.

Covering the Water Surface

  • Covering the surface of water bodies with fixed or floating covers considerably retards evaporation loss. These covers reflect energy inputs from the atmosphere, as a result of which evaporation loss is reduced. The covers literally trap the air and prevent transfer of water vapour to outer atmosphere.

  • Fixed covers are suitable only for relatively small storages. For large storages, floating covers or mat or spheres may be useful and effective. However, for large  water surfaces the cost of covering the surface with floats is prohibitive, Further in case of reservoirs with flood outlets, there is also the danger of floats being lost over spillway or through outlets. The floating covers are thus of limited utility to larger water bodies.

Reduction of Exposed Water Surface

  • In this method shallow portions of the reservoirs are isolated or curtailed by construction of dykes or bunds at suitable locations. Water accumulated during the monsoon season in such shallow portions IS diverted or pumped to appropriate deeper pockets in summer months, so that the shallow water surface area exposed to evaporation is effectively reduced.

Control of Sedimentation in Reservoirs

  • Sedimentation of a reservoir is a natural phenomenon and is a matter of vital concern for storage projects in meeting various demands, like irrigation, hydroelectric power, flood control, etc. Since it affects the useful capacity of the reservoir based on which projects are expected to be productive for a design period. Further, the deposited sediment adds to the forces on structures in dams, spillways, etc.

  • The rate of sedimentation will depend largely on the annual sediment load carried by  the stream and the extent to which the same will be retained in the reservoir. This, in turn, depends upon a number of factors such as the area and nature of the catchment, level use pattern (cultivation practices, grazing, logging, construction activities and conservation practices), rainfall pattern, storage capacity, period of storage in relation to the sediment load of the stream, particle size distribution in the suspended sediment, channel hydraulics, location and size of sluices, outlet works, configuration of the reservoir, and the method and purpose of releases through the dam.

  • Therefore, attention is required to each one of these factors for the efficient control of  sedimentation of reservoirs with a view to enhancing their useful life and some of these methods are discussed in the Bureau of Indian Standard code IS: 6518-1992 “Code of practice for control of sediment in reservoirs”. In this section, these factors are briefly discussed.

There are different techniques of controlling sedimentation in reservoirs which may broadly be classified as follows:

  • Adequate design of reservoir

  • Control of sediment inflow

  • Control of sediment deposition

  • Removal of deposited sediment.

Each of these methods is briefly described as follows: