It is not very uncommon to find a group or „system‟ of reservoirs either in a single river or in a river and its tributaries.
In case of system of reservoirs, it is necessary to adopt a strategy for integrated operated of reservoirs to achieve optimum utilization of the water resources available and to benefit the best out of the reservoir system.
In the preparation of regulation plans for an integrated operation of system of reservoirs, principles applicable to separate units are first applied to the individual reservoirs. Modifications of schedule so developed should then be considered by working out several alternative plans. In these studies optimization and simulation techniques may be extensively used with the application of computers in water resources development.
A Dam is an obstruction or barrier built across a river or natural stream to create a reservoir for impounding water. The side on which water gets collected is called the upstream side and the other side of the barrier is known as the downstream side.
Site Selection Criteria for Dam
Suitable foundation must be available.
For economy, the length of the dam should be as small as possible and for a given height it should store the maximum amount of water.
A suitable site for the spillway should be available in or nearby vicinity.
The bed level at the dam site should preferably be higher than that of the river basin. This will reduce the height of the dam and will facilitate the drainage problem.
The reservoir basin should be reasonably water-tight.
Material required for the construction of the dam should be easily available locally.
The value of the land and property submerged by the proposed dam should be as low as possible.
The dam site should be easily accessible, such that it can be economically connected to important towns.
Site for establishing labour colonies and healthy environment should be available near by vicinity.