Life of reservoir and design criteria 

Life of reservoir and design criteria 

A reservoir exists for a long time and the period of its operation should normally check large technological and socio-economic changes. The planning assumptions about the exact socioeconomic outputs are, therefore, likely to be changed during operation, and similarly, the implication of socio-economic differences in the output due to sedimentation are difficult to access. The ever increasing demands due to both increase of population and increases in per capita needs are of a larger magnitude than the reductions in outputs, if any, of existing reservoirs. Thus effects of sedimentation, obsolescence, structural deterioration, etc. of reservoirs may require adjustments in future developmental plans and not simply replacement projects to bring back the lost potential.

On a regional or national scale, it is the sufficiency of the total economic outputs, and not outputs of a particular project which is relevant. However, from local considerations, the reduction of outputs of reservoir like irrigation and flood control may cause a much greater degree of distress to the population which has got used to better socio-economic conditions because of the reservoir. 

"Life" strictly is a term which may be used for system having two functional states "ON‟ and "OFF‟. Systems showing gradual degradation of performance and not showing any sudden non-functional stage have no specific life period. Reservoirs fall in the later category. 

The term "life of reservoir‟ as loosely used denotes the period during which whole or a specified fraction of its total or active capacity is lost. In calculating this life, the progressive changes in trap efficiency towards the end of the period are commonly not considered. In some of the earlier projects, it has been assumed that all the sedimentation would occur only in the dead storage pocket and the number of years in which the pocket should be filled under this assumption was also sometimes termed as the life of reservoir. This concept was in fact used to decide the minimum size of the pocket. Under this concept, no effect of sedimentation should be felt within the live storage of the reservoir. It has subsequently been established that the silt occupies the space in the live storage of reservoir as well as the dead storage. 

If the operation of the reservoir becomes impossible due to any structural defects, foundation defects, accidental damages, etc., this situation should also signify the end  of the feasible service time. Before the expiry of this feasible service time, it may be possible to make large changes in the reservoir (for example, new higher level outlets, structural strengthening, etc.) or other measures, if it is economically feasible to do so. If these studies are done, the feasible service time may be extended.