Introduction to Irrigation

Introduction to Irrigation

What is Irrigation?

  • The artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops.

  • Irrigation comes from the latin word for 'moist' or 'wet' but it means the purposeful wetting of something. Irrigation systems are often complex combinations of canals channels and hoses.

  • Irrigation is basically watering of a land area in order to use the land area for cultivation.
    E.g if we want to cultivate something in an area so we need to do watering of that area in order to do cultivation and this is what we call as Irrigation.

Necessity of Irrigation : 

  • During the crop period due to uncertainty of rainfall, rain water may not be adequate to fulfill the water requirement of,Irrigation becomes absolutely necessary to fulfill the water requirement of crops. In india the major source of water is south west monsoon.

  • The annual average rainfall of india is 1143mm which is less than the water requirement of many crops which is the main reason of Irrigation 

Below are some of the reasons of Irrigation in india

  1. Insufficient rainfall: when the seasonal rainfall is less than the minimum requirement for the satisfied growth of crops,the Irrigation becomes necessary Development of agriculture in desert area: in desert area where the rainfall is very scanty Irrigation is required for the development of agriculture 

  2. Uneven distribution of Rainfall: when the rainfall is not evenly distributed during the crop period or through the cultivable area the Irrigation is extremely necessary 

  3. Perennial crops: some perennial crops like sugarcane cotton etc require water throughout the major part of the year.But the rainfall may fulfill the water requirement in the rainy seasons for remaining part of the year Irrigation becomes necessary