Geology is the branch of an earth science comprising the study of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change. Geology can also refer generally to the study of the solid features of any celestial body. It also deals with the evolution, modification and extinction of various surface and subsurface features of earth.
The study of earth science with its application in civil engineering is called as Engineering Geology. This is a new field of applied science that has developed due to interaction between the civil engineering practice and geological science. Engineering geology is the application of the geological sciences to engineering study for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for. Engineering geologists provide geological and geotechnical recommendations, analysis, and design associated with human development and various types of structures. The realm of the engineering geologist is essentially in the area of earth-structure interactions, or investigation of how the earth or earth processes impact human made structures and human activities.
One of the most important roles as an engineering geologist is the interpretation of landforms and earth processes to identify potential geologic and related man-made hazards that may have a great impact on civil structures and human development. The background in geology provides the engineering geologist with an understanding of how the earth works, which is crucial minimizing earth related hazards.
The following are the branches of geology: