Index properties are used in the identification and determination of soils for engineering purposes. In this chapter we are going to deal with the determination the index properties of the soils, Here is the list of index properties of soils.
Particle Size Distribution
This is the list of the mehthods which are used to determine the water content of a soil sample.
Oven drying method
Sand bath method
Calcium Carbide method
Torsion balance method
Oven Drying Method
This is the most accurate and preferable method of determining the water content and is therefore extensively used in the laboratory.
A container with an interior of non-corroding material is taken and its mass is found with its lid, on a balance accurate to 0.01 g. (M1)
The mass of a specimen of the moist soil sample is taken by placing it in the container along with its lid on it. (M2)
Note: add table
Now, the lid is removed and the container is placed in the thermostatically controlled oven for drying in which the temperature is maintained between 105℃ to 110℃ for 24 hrs.
Note: For complete drying of,
Sandy soils: about 4 hrs.
Fat clays; 14-16 hrs.
For highly organic soils, such as Peat: 60℃ is preferable to prevent oxidation of organic matter.
For soils containing Gypsum: 80℃ but longer duration to prevent loss of water of crystallisation in it. (as per IS:2720 Part-II 1969)
Usually, the sample is dried for 24 hrs to ensure complete drying.
Temperature higher than 110℃ may break the crystalline structure of clay particles, resulting in the loss of chemically bonded structural water, especially in fat clay soils.
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