Elevation Area Capacity Curves 

Elevation Area Capacity Curves 

Topographic survey of the reservoir area should form the basis for obtaining these curves, which are respectively the plots of elevation of the reservoir versus surface area and elevation of the reservoir versus volume. For preliminary studies, in case suitable topographic map with contours, say at intervals less than 2.5 m is not available, stream profile and valley cross sections taken at suitable intervals may form the basis for computing the volume. Aerial survey may also be adopted when facilities are available. 

Trap Efficiency 

Trap efficiency of reservoir, over a period, is the ratio of total deposited sediment to the total sediment inflow. Figures 1 and 2 given in Annex A of IS 12182 cover relationship between sedimentation index of the reservoir and percentage of incoming sediment and these curves may be used for calculation of trpan-evaporimeter

Losses in Reservoir 

Water losses mainly of evaporation and seepage occur under pre-project conditions and are reflected in the stream flow records used for estimating water yield. The  construction of new reservoirs and canals is often accompanied by additional evaporation and infiltration. Estimation of these losses may be based on measurements at existing reservoirs and canals. The measured inflows and outflows and the rate of change of storage are balanced by computed total loss rate. 

The depth of water evaporated per year from the reservoir surface may vary from about 400 mm in cool and humid climate to more than 2500 mm in hot and arid regions. Therefore, evaporation is an important consideration in many projects and deserves careful attention. Various methods like water budget method, energy budget method, etc may be applied for estimating the evaporation from reservoir. However, to be more accurate, evaporation from reservoir is estimated by using data from pan-evaporimeters or pans exposed to atmosphere with or without meshing in or near the reservoir site and suitably adjusted. 

Seepage losses from reservoirs and irrigation canals may be significant if these facilities are located in an area underlain by permeable strata. Avoidance in full or in part of seepage losses may be very expensive and technical difficulties involved may render a project unfeasible. These are generally covered under the conveyance losses in canals projected on the demand side of simulation studies.